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The Nicosia column was presumably erected in compliment to the reigning Doge Francesco Donati about the year Just after the British Occupation a Municipal Council was constituted in Nicosia in for the general administration of public affairs within the city and for a certain area without the walls, under the presidency of a Mayor.
In the municipal limits were extended further see map and this new area was divided among several of the existing intramural Neighbourhoods.
In an armed struggle against British rule began aiming to unite the island with Greece, Enosis. The struggle was led by EOKA, a Greek Cypriot nationalist military resistance organisation,   and supported by the vast majority of Greek Cypriots.
The unification with Greece failed and instead the independence of Cyprus was declared in During the period of the struggle, Nicosia was the scene of violent protests against British rule.
In Nicosia became the capital of the Republic of Cyprus, a state established by the Greek and Turkish Cypriots.
In , the Greek Cypriot side proposed amendments to the constitution, which were rejected by the Turkish Cypriot community. Nicosia was divided into Greek and Turkish Cypriot quarters with the Green Line , named after the colour of the pen used by the United Nations officer to draw the line on a map of the city.
The coup ousted president Makarios III and replaced him with pro- enosis nationalist Nikos Sampson. The fighting left the island with a massive refugee problem on both sides.
On 13 February the Turkish Cypriot community declared the Turkish Federated State of Cyprus in the area occupied by Turkish forces.
On 23 April , the Ledra Palace crossing was opened through the Green Line, the first time that crossing was allowed since Nicosia has a hot semi-arid climate Köppen climate classification BSh due to its low annual precipitation totals and annual temperature range.
Winter precipitation is occasionally accompanied by sleet but rarely by snow. The accumulation of snow is particularly rare last events occurred in , and There is occasionally light frost during the winter nights.
At the Lefkopa weather station in Nicosia, the temperature reached Ledra Street is in the middle of the walled city.
The street today is a historic monument on its own. During the EOKA struggle that ran from to , the street acquired the informal nickname The Murder Mile in reference to the frequent targeting of the British colonialists by nationalist fighters along its course.
Various streets which ran between the northern and southern part of the city, including Ledra Street, were blockaded. During the Turkish army invasion of Cyprus in , Turkish troops occupied northern Nicosia as well as the northern part of Cyprus.
A buffer zone was established across the island along the ceasefire line to separate the northern Turkish controlled part of the island, and the south.
The buffer zone runs through Ledra Street. After many failed attempts on reaching agreement between the two communities, Ledra Street was reopened on 3 April To the east of Ledra Street, Faneromeni Square was the centre of Nicosia before It hosts a number of historical buildings and monuments including Faneromeni Church, Faneromeni School, Faneromeni Library and the Marble Mausoleum.
Faneromeni Church, is a church built in in the stead of another church located at the same site, constructed with the remains of La Cava castle and a convent.
There rest the archbishop and the other bishops who were executed by the Ottomans in the Saray Square during the revolt.
The Palace of the Archbishop can be found at Archbishop Kyprianos Square. Although it seems very old, it is a wonderful imitation of typical Venetian style, built in Next to the palace is the late Gothic Saint John cathedral with picturesque frescos.
The square leads to Onasagorou Street , another busy shopping street in the historical centre. The walls surrounding the old city have three gates.
In The Kyrenia Gate which was responsible to the transport to the north, and especially Kyrenia , the Famagusta Gate which was responsible for the transport from Famagusta , Larnaca and Limassol and Karpasia , and the Paphos Gate for transport to the west and especially Paphos.
All three gates are well-preserved. The historical centre is clearly present inside the walls, but the modern city has grown beyond.
Presently, the main square of the city is Eleftheria Freedom Square , with the city hall, the post office and the library. The square, which is under renovation, connects the old city with the new city where one can find the main shopping streets such as the prestigious Stasikratous Street , Themistokli Dervi Avenue and Makarios Avenue.
Nicosia is also known for its fine museums. The Archbishop's Palace contains a Byzantine museum containing the largest collection of religious icons on the island.
Leventis Municipal Museum is the only historical museum of Nicosia and revives the old ways of life in the capital from ancient times up to our days.
Other interesting museums include the Folk Art Museum, National Struggle Museum witnessing the rebellion against the British administration in the s , Cyprus Ethnological Museum House of Dragoman Hadjigeorgakis Kornesios, 18th century and the Handicrafts Centre.
Nicosia also hosts an Armenian archbishopric , a small Buddhist temple, a Maronite archbishopric , and a Roman Catholic church. At the center of the walled city lies the Sarayönü Square.
The square has been dubbed as "the heart of Nicosia" and historically has been the cultural center of the Turkish Cypriot community. The avenue has been described as "the symbol of the walled city", and is filled with numerous shops and restaurants.
Next to the Ledra Street checkpoint is the Arasta area. The area was pedestrianized in and is home to a network of historic shopping streets, reflecting an eastern shopping tradition with food and traditional items.
Still a residential area, the neighborhood is considered to be one of the best representations of the Cypriot culture. The mosque is the chief religious center in Northern Cyprus.
It was built between and by the Latin Church of Cyprus, in a Gothic style resembling French cathedrals. It was used as a marketplace in the Ottoman era.
Today, it is used as a cultural center where various cultural activities such as concerts and festivals take place. The quarters of Nicosia outside the walled city are more spacious than the walled city, with wider roads and junctions.
These areas are characterized by multi-floor concrete buildings. In the outskirts of the city, a number large and imposing villas have been built that belong to the middle and upper-classes.
Greater Nicosia is administered by several municipalities. In the centre is the city municipality of Nicosia itself see below.
The population of the conurbation is , census, plus Turkish Cypriot administered census of of which , live within the Nicosia municipal area.
Because Nicosia municipality has separate communal municipal administrations, the population of Strovolos 67, Census is actually the largest of all the local authorities in Greater Nicosia.
Within Nicosia municipality, most of the population resides in the more recently annexed outlying areas of Kaimakli , Pallouriotissa , Omorfita and Ayii Omoloyites.
There is no metropolitan authority as such for Greater Nicosia and various roles, responsibilities and functions for the wider area are undertaken by the Nicosia District administration, bodies such as the Nicosia Water Board and, to some extent, Nicosia municipality.
The Nicosia Water Board supplies water to the following municipalities: Nicosia, Strovolos, Aglandjia, Engomi, Ay.
Dometios, Latsia, Geri and Tseri. The board consists of three persons nominated by the Council of each municipality, plus three members appointed by the government, who are usually the District Officer of Nicosia District, who chairs the Board, the Accountant General and the Director of the Water Department.
The board also supply Anthoupolis and Ergates, for whom the government provide representatives. Thus the board is in the majority controlled by the municipalities of Greater Nicosia in providing this vital local government service.
The Nicosia Sewerage Board, is likewise majority controlled by the municipalities of Greater Nicosia. It is chaired ex officio by the Mayor of Nicosia and consists of members chosen by the municipalities of Nicosia 6 members , Strovolos 5 members , Aglandjia 2 members , Lakatamia 2 members , Ay.
Dometios 2 members , Engomi 2 members , Latsia 1 member. The sewage treatment plant is at Mia Milia. Public transport is not controlled by the local authorities, but comes under the Nicosia District administration, which is an arm of the Ministry of the Interior.
Transport services primarily bus and taxi are provided by private operators such as OSEL. The Nicosia Municipality is responsible for all the municipal duties within the walled city and the immediately adjacent areas.
The Constitution states that various main government buildings and headquarters must be situated within the Nicosia municipal boundaries.
The Turkish Municipal Committees Temporary Provisions Law,  established a municipal authority run by a "Turkish Municipal Committee", defined as "the body of persons set up on or after the first day of July, , in the towns of Nicosia, Limassol, Famagusta, Larnaca and Paphos by the Turkish inhabitants thereof for the purpose of performing municipal functions within the municipal limits of such towns".
The Nicosia Turkish Municipality , founded in , carries out municipal duties in the northern and north-western part of city.
The first attempt to establish a Nicosia Turkish Municipality was made in In October , the British Colonial Administration passed the Turkish Municipality Committees law.
In with the declaration of independence of Cyprus, the Constitution of the Republic of Cyprus gave Turkish Cypriots the right to establish their own municipality.
The Nicosia Turkish Municipality is a member the Union of Cyprus Turkish Municipalities. Until there were no suburban municipalities.
Dometios, Aglandjia, Latsia and Lakatamia were erected into municipalities. All members of the council are elected directly by the people for a period of 5 years.
Nicosia within the city limits is divided into 29 administrative units, according to the latest census. This unit is termed in English as quarter , neighbourhood, parish , enoria or mahalla.
These units are: Ayios Andreas formerly Tophane , Trypiotis, Nebethane , Tabakhane , Phaneromeni, Ayios Savvas , Omerie, Ayios Antonios St.
Anthony , St. The municipality of Strovolos, established in , is the second largest municipal authority in Cyprus in terms of population after Limassol and encompasses the southern suburbs of the capital immediately adjacent to Nicosia municipality.
The town of Gönyeli is now conurbated with the northern suburbs. Previously a village authority, it now functions as a municipality  within the same area  The suburbs immediately to the north of the city have not been erected into municipalities.
The village authority of Hamitköy also known as Hamid Mandres was heavily urbanized  and was included within the borders of Nicosia Turkish Municipality  as a Nicosia neighbourhood headed by a muhtar.
The Cyprus Museum in Nicosia is the largest and oldest archaeological museum in Cyprus. In old Nicosia, the Ethnological Museum Hadjigeorgakis Kornesios Mansion is the most important example of urban architecture of the last century of Ottoman domination which survives in old Nicosia.
Today, the mansion which was awarded the Europa Nostra prize for its exemplary renovation work, functions as a museum where a collection of artifacts from the Byzantine, Medieval and Ottoman periods are displayed.
Other museums in Nicosia include the Cyprus Museum of Natural History and the Leventis Municipal Museum of Nicosia and Von World Pens Hall in the south.
In the north, the Dervish Pasha Mansion , similar in architecture to the Hadjigeorgakis Kornesios Mansion, serves as an ethnological museum, displaying Ottoman and archaeological artifacts.
Art galleries in Nicosia include the Leventis Gallery , which hosts over paintings from Cypriot, Greek or European artists.
Nicosia offers a wide variety of musical and theatrical events, organized either by the municipality or independent organizations.
Halls and theatres used for this purpose include:. Nicosia's universities also boast an impressive array of facilities, and many churches and outdoor spaces are used to host cultural events.
Nicosia hosted the Miss Universe pageant. In June , Nicosia launched a failed campaign to become the European Capital of Culture for Nicosia has a large student community as it is the seat of eight universities, the University of Cyprus UCY , the University of Nicosia , the European University Cyprus , the Open University of Cyprus , Frederick University , Near East University , the University of Mediterranean Karpasia , Cyprus International University.
Nicosia is the financial and business heart of Cyprus. The city hosts the headquarters of all Cypriot banks namely the former Cyprus Popular Bank also known as Laiki Bank , Bank of Cyprus , the Hellenic Bank.
Further, the Central Bank of Cyprus is located in the Acropolis area of the Cypriot capital. International technology companies such as NCR and TSYS have their regional headquarters in Nicosia.
The city is also home to local financial newspapers such as the Financial Mirror and Stockwatch. Cyprus Airways had its head offices in the entrance of Makariou Avenue.
Nicosia is linked with other major cities in Cyprus via a modern motorway network. The A1 connects Nicosia with Limassol in the south with the A6 going from Limassol onto Paphos.
The A2 links Nicosia with the south eastern city of Larnaca with the A3 going from Larnaca to Ayia Napa. The A9 connects Nicosia to the west Nicosia district villages and the Troodos mountains.
The capital is also linked to the 2 international airports: Larnaca International Airport and Paphos International Airport. Nicosia International Airport ceased commercial operations in ; it is located within the Green Line buffer zone, and is used as the headquarters of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus.
Public transport within the city is served by a new bus service. Bus services in Nicosia are run by OSEL. Fares are regulated by law and taxi drivers are obliged to use a taximeter.
In , as part of the Nicosia Integrated Mobility Plan, a pre-feasibility study for a proposed tram network has taken place and sponsored by the Ministry of Communications and Works.
The study compared two scenarios, with and without the operation of a tramway in terms of emitted polluting loads.
In , the Nicosia Municipality introduced the Bike in Action scheme, a bicycle sharing system which covers the Greater Nicosia area.
The scheme is run by the Inter-Municipal Bicycle Company of Nicosia DEPL. Monument to The First President of Cyprus Archbishop Makarios III.
Leventis Municipal Museum of Nicosia. Athalassa National Park. Go rest. A mix of the charming, modern, and tried and true.
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Indalo Accommodation Nicosia. El alcalde y los concejales ejercen todos los poderes conferidos por la Ley de Sociedades Municipales.
El alcalde es la autoridad ejecutiva del municipio, ejerce un control general y gestiona el Consejo Municipal. El Consejo es responsable del nombramiento del personal contratado por el municipio.
Estos pueden clasificarse en instituciones universitarias y no universitarias. La Universidad de Chipre fue fundada en y el ingreso de los primeros estudiantes fue en La ciudad de Nicosia se ubica en el distrito de Nicosia , aproximadamente en el centro de la isla de Chipre.
En baloncesto destacan equipos locales como Achilleas , APOEL BC y Omonia BC. De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre.