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The cruel and brutally inhumane treatment of Soviet civilians, women, children and elderly, the daily bombings of civilian cities and towns, Nazi pillaging of Soviet villages and hamlets and unprecedented harsh punishment and treatment of civilians in general were some of the primary reasons for Soviet resistance to Nazi Germany's invasion.
Indeed, the Soviets viewed Germany's invasion as an act of aggression and an attempt to conquer and enslave the local population. Regions closer to the front were managed by military powers of the region, in other areas such as the Baltic states annexed by the USSR in , Reichscommissariats were established.
As a rule, the maximum in loot was extracted. His opening speech was clear about German policy: "I am known as a brutal dog Our job is to suck from Ukraine all the goods we can get hold of I am expecting from you the utmost severity towards the native population.
Atrocities against the Jewish population in the conquered areas began almost immediately, with the dispatch of Einsatzgruppen task groups to round up Jews and shoot them.
The massacres of Jews and other ethnic minorities were only a part of the deaths from the Nazi occupation. Many hundreds of thousands of Soviet civilians were executed, and millions more died from starvation as the Germans requisitioned food for their armies and fodder for their draft horses.
As they retreated from Ukraine and Belarus in —44, the German occupiers systematically applied a scorched earth policy, burning towns and cities, destroying infrastructure, and leaving civilians to starve or die of exposure.
The Nazi ideology and the maltreatment of the local population and Soviet POWs encouraged partisans fighting behind the front; it motivated even anti-communists or non-Russian nationalists to ally with the Soviets and greatly delayed the formation of German-allied divisions consisting of Soviet POWs see Ostlegionen.
These results and missed opportunities contributed to the defeat of the Wehrmacht. Vadim Erlikman has detailed Soviet losses totalling Military losses of Civilian deaths totalled Additional famine deaths, which totalled one million during —47, are not included here.
These losses are for the entire territory of the USSR including territories annexed in — Belarus lost a quarter of its pre-war population, including practically all its intellectual elite.
Following bloody encirclement battles, all of the present-day Belarus territory was occupied by the Germans by the end of August The Nazis imposed a brutal regime, deporting some , young people for slave labour, and killing hundreds of thousands civilians more.
Some recent reports raise the number of Belarusians who perished in the war to "3 million thousand people, unlike the former 2.
Sixty percent of Soviet POWs died during the war. By , 80 per cent of civilians and 20 per cent of POWs were freed, others were re-drafted, or sent to labour battalions.
Two per cent of civilians and 14 per cent of the POWs were sent to the Gulag. The official Polish government report of war losses prepared in reported 6,, victims out of a population of 27,, ethnic Poles and Jews; this report excluded ethnic Ukrainian and Belarusian losses.
Although the Soviet Union had not signed the Geneva Convention , it is generally accepted that it considered itself bound by the provisions of the Hague convention.
This 'note' was left unanswered by Third Reich officials. Soviet repressions also contributed into the Eastern Front's death toll. Mass repression occurred in the occupied portions of Poland as well as in the Baltic states and Bessarabia.
Immediately after the start of the German invasion, the NKVD massacred large numbers of inmates in most of their prisons in Western Belarus and Western Ukraine, while the remainder was to be evacuated in death marches.
The Soviet victory owed a great deal to the ability of its war industry to outperform the German economy, despite the enormous loss of population and land.
Stalin's five-year plans of the s had resulted in the industrialisation of the Urals and central Asia.
In , thousands of trains evacuated critical factories and workers from Belarus and Ukraine to safe areas far from the front lines.
Once these facilities were reassembled east of the Urals, production could be resumed without fear of German bombing.
As the Soviet Union's manpower reserves ran low from onwards, the great Soviet offensives had to depend more on equipment and less on the expenditure of lives.
The Germans, on the other hand, could rely on a large slave workforce from the conquered countries and Soviet POWs.
American exports and technical expertise also enabled the Soviets to produce goods that they wouldn't have been able to on their own.
German production of explosives from to was 1. Consumption on all fronts during the same period was 1. Soviet armoured fighting vehicle production was greater than the Germans in , the Soviet Union manufactured 24, tanks and self-propelled guns to Germany's 19, The Soviets incrementally upgraded existing designs, and simplified and refined manufacturing processes to increase production, and were helped by a mass infusion of harder to produce goods such as aviation fuel, machine tools, trucks, and high-explosives from Lend-Lease, allowing them to concentrate on a few key industries.
Meanwhile, Germany had been cut off from foreign trade for years by the time it invaded the USSR, was in the middle of two extended and costly theatres at air and sea that further limited production Battle of the Atlantic and Defence of the Reich , and was forced to devote a large segment of its expenditures to goods the Soviets could cut back on such as trucks or which would never even be used against the Soviets such as ships.
This included , trucks, 12, armoured vehicles including 7, tanks , 11, aircraft and 1. Five thousand tanks were provided by the British and Canada.
Total British supplies were about four million tons. After the defeat at Stalingrad, Germany geared completely towards a war economy, as expounded in a speech given by Joseph Goebbels , the Nazi propaganda minister , in the Berlin Sportpalast , increasing production in subsequent years under Albert Speer 's the Reich armaments minister direction, despite the intensifying Allied bombing campaign.
The fighting involved millions of Axis and Soviet troops along the broadest land front in military history. Rüdiger Overmans states that it seems entirely plausible, while not provable, that one half of these men were killed in action and the other half died in Soviet custody.
Over According to the Narkomat of Defence order No. The huge death toll was attributed to several factors, including brutal mistreatment of POWs and captured partisans, the large deficiency of food and medical supplies in Soviet territories, and atrocities committed mostly by the Germans against the civilian population.
The multiple battles and the use of scorched earth tactics destroyed agricultural land , infrastructure, and whole towns, leaving much of the population homeless and without food.
According to a report prepared by the General Staff of the Army issued in December , materiel losses in the East from the period of 22 June until November stood at 33, armoured vehicles of all types tanks, assault guns, tank destroyers, self-propelled guns and others.
Paul Winter, Defeating Hitler , states "these figures are undoubtedly too low". The Soviets lost 96, tanks, tank destroyers, self-propelled guns and assault guns, as well as 37, other armoured vehicles such as armoured cars and semi-tracked trucks for a total of , armoured vehicles lost.
The Soviets also lost , aircraft combat and non-combat causes , including 46, in combat. Polish Armed Forces in the East , initially consisting of Poles from Eastern Poland or otherwise in the Soviet Union in —, began fighting alongside the Red Army in , and grew steadily as more Polish territory was liberated from the Nazis in — When the Axis countries of Central Europe were occupied by the Soviets, they changed sides and declared war on Germany see Allied Commissions.
Most of those who joined were Soviet POWs. These foreign volunteers in the Wermacht were primarily used in the Eastern Front but some were assigned to guard the beaches of Normandy.
Hitler's notorious Commissar Order called for Soviet political commissars, who were responsible for ensuring that Red Army units remained politically reliable, to be summarily shot when identified amongst captured troops.
Axis troops who captured Red Army soldiers frequently shot them in the field or shipped them to concentration camps to be used as forced labourers or killed.
It is estimated that between 2. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Soviet Offensive For a discussion of the term itself, see Great Patriotic War term.
Soviet occupation of Central and Eastern Europe. Finland until Soviet Union Czechoslovakia Poland. Air and naval support :. Eastern Front. Soviet leadership.
Related topics. Main article: Germany—Soviet Union relations, — See also: Aufbau Ost and Lossberg study. Main article: Operation Barbarossa.
Soviet gains. German gains. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
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Main article: Soviet invasion of Manchuria. Main article: Adolf Hitler. Main article: Joseph Stalin. From there Hungary became a German puppet state until the end of the war.
The Atlantic. Retrieved 26 November Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. The USSR sustained Moscow According to the same source, total Soviet civilian deaths within post-war borders amounted to The numbers for other Central European and German civilian casualties are not included here.
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We finally put the colonial and commercial policy of the pre-war and go over to the territorial policy of the future.
But if we speak today in Europe of new land, we can primarily only to Russia and the border states subjects him think. Central European History.
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Presidio Press, Shirer, William L. SvD  Winterbotham, F. The Ultra Secret , New Edition. This ideology has been put into effect through socioeconomic and legal structures such as the Atlantic slave trade , Jim Crow laws in the United States , the White Australia policies from the s to the mids, and apartheid in South Africa.
Since the early s, the White power movement has been committed to overthrowing the United States government and establishing a white homeland using paramilitary tactics.
In academic usage, particularly in critical race theory or intersectionality , "white supremacy" can also refer to a social system in which white people enjoy structural advantages privilege over other ethnic groups, on both a collective and individual level, despite formal legal equality.
White supremacy has ideological foundations that date back to 17th-century scientific racism , the predominant paradigm of human variation that helped shape international relations and racial policy from the latter part of the Age of Enlightenment until the late 20th century marked by decolonization and the abolition of apartheid in South Africa in , followed by that country's first multiracial elections in White supremacy was dominant in the United States both before and after the American Civil War , and it also persisted for decades after the Reconstruction Era.
Frank Baum wrote: "The Whites, by law of conquest , by justice of civilization, are masters of the American continent, and the best safety of the frontier settlements will be secured by the total annihilation of the few remaining Indians.
The Naturalization Act of limited U. Professor Leland T. Saito of the University of Southern California writes: "Throughout the history of the United States, race has been used by whites for legitimizing and creating difference and social, economic and political exclusion.
The denial of social and political freedom to minorities continued into the midth century, resulting in the civil rights movement.
After the mids, white supremacy remained an important ideology to the American far-right. Some academics argue that outcomes from the United States Presidential Election reflect ongoing challenges with white supremacy.
Psychologist Janet Helms suggested that the normalizing behaviors of social institutions of education, government, and healthcare are organized around the "birthright of On July 23, , Christopher A.
Wray , the head of the FBI , said at a Senate Judiciary Committee hearing that the agency had made around domestic terrorism arrests since October 1, , and that the majority of them were connected in some way with white supremacy.
Wray said that the Bureau was "aggressively pursuing [domestic terrorism] using both counterterrorism resources and criminal investigative resources and partnering closely with our state and local partners," but said that it was focused on the violence itself and not on its ideological basis.
A similar number of arrests had been made for instances of international terrorism. In the past, Wray has said that white supremacy was a significant and "pervasive" threat to the U.
On September 20, , the acting Secretary of Homeland Security , Kevin McAleenan , announced his department's revised strategy for counter-terrorism, which included a new emphasis on the dangers inherent in the white supremacy movement.
McAleenan called white supremacy one of the most "potent ideologies" behind domestic terrorism-related violent acts. In a speech at the Brookings Institution , McAleenan cited a series of high-profile shooting incidents, and said "In our modern age, the continued menace of racially based violent extremism, particularly white supremacist extremism, is an abhorrent affront to the nation, the struggle and unity of its diverse population.
White supremacy has also played a part in U. Over the course of the 19th , 20th , and 21st centuries, material across the spectrum of academic disciplines has been taught with an overemphasis on White culture, contributions, and experiences, and a corresponding underrepresentation of non-White groups' perspectives and accomplishments.
He states that the language used to tell history minimizes the violent acts committed by White people over the centuries, citing the use of the words "discovery," "colonization," and " New World " when describing what was ultimately a European conquest of the western hemisphere and its indigenous peoples as examples.
In an analysis of American history textbooks, she highlights word choices that repetitively "normalize" slavery and the inhumane treatment of Black people p.
She also notes the frequent showcasing of White abolitionists and actual exclusion of Black abolitionists, as well as the fact that Black Americans had been mobilizing for abolition for centuries before the major White American push for abolition in the 19th century.
She ultimately asserts the presence of a masternarrative that centers Europe and its associated peoples White people in school curriculum, particularly as it pertains to history.
Elson provides detailed information about the historic dissemination of simplistic and negative ideas about non-White races.
White culture, at the turn of the 20th century. White supremacy has been depicted in music videos , feature films , documentaries , journal entries, and on social media.
The silent drama film The Birth of a Nation followed the rising racial, economic, political, and geographic tensions leading up to the Emancipation Proclamation and the Southern Reconstruction era that was the genesis of the Ku Klux Klan.
David Duke , a former Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan , believed that the Internet was going to create a "chain reaction of racial enlightenment that will shake the world.
There certainly were hate groups before the Internet and social media. It could be to raise money, or it could be to engage in attacks on social media.
Some of the activity is virtual. Some of it is in a physical place. Social media has lowered the collective-action problems that individuals who might want to be in a hate group would face.
You can see that there are people out there like you. That's the dark side of social media. With the emergence of Twitter in , and platforms such as Stormfront which was launched in , an alt-right portal for white supremacists with similar beliefs, both adults and children, was provided in which they were given a way to connect.
Daniels discussed the emergence of other social media outlets such as 4chan and Reddit , which meant that the "spread of white nationalist symbols and ideas could be accelerated and amplified.
In the latest wave of white supremacy, in the age of the Internet, Blee sees the movement as having primarily become a virtual one, in which divisions between groups become blurred: "[A]ll these various groups that get jumbled together as the alt-right and people who have come in from the more traditional neo-Nazi world.
We're in a very different world now. A series on YouTube hosted by the grandson of Thomas Robb , the national director of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, "presents the Klan's ideology in a format aimed at kids — more specifically, white kids.
A sign that greets people who enter the town states " Diversity is a code for white genocide. The comic book super hero Captain America , in an ironic co-optation, has been used for dog whistle politics by the alt-right in college campus recruitment in In , Winston Churchill told the Palestine Royal Commission : "I do not admit for instance, that a great wrong has been done to the Red Indians of America or the black people of Australia.
I do not admit that a wrong has been done to these people by the fact that a stronger race, a higher-grade race, a more worldly wise race to put it that way, has come in and taken their place.
A number of Southern African nations experienced severe racial tension and conflict during global decolonization , particularly as white Africans of European ancestry fought to protect their preferential social and political status.
Racial segregation in South Africa began in colonial times under the Dutch Empire , and it continued when the British took over the Cape of Good Hope in Apartheid was introduced as an officially structured policy by the Afrikaner -dominated National Party after the general election of Apartheid's legislation divided inhabitants into four racial groups—"black", "white", "coloured", and "Indian", with coloured divided into several sub-classifications.
In Rhodesia a predominantly white government issued its own unilateral declaration of independence from the United Kingdom during an unsuccessful attempt to avoid immediate majority rule.
Nazism promoted the idea of a superior Germanic people or Aryan race in Germany during the early 20th century.
Notions of white supremacy and Aryan racial superiority were combined in the 19th century, with white supremacists maintaining the belief that white people were members of an Aryan " master race " which was superior to other races, particularly the Jews , who were described as the "Semitic race", Slavs , and Gypsies , which they associated with "cultural sterility".
Gobineau's theories, which attracted a strong following in Germany, emphasized the existence of an irreconcilable polarity between Aryan or Germanic peoples and Jewish culture.
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