Historic Map Karte von Creek Indianer, Alabama & Georgien, durch die Creek Indianer Gave T - Finden Sie alles für ihr Zuhause bei liveinthelead.com Creek. Schon vor vielen Jahrhunderten hatten die Indianer im Südosten Nordamerikas eine hohe Stufe der Zivilisation erreicht. Es gab komplexe Gesellschaften. die Interessen der Regierung(en) durchsetzte und sich im Krieg gegen die Seminole-Indianer in Florida oder gegen die Creek-Indianer ausgezeichnet hatte.
Der Südosten (Creek, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Seminolen)für „Indianerumsiedlungsgesetz“) gedeckten Vertreibung der Muskogee (Creek) aus ihren angestammten Siedlungsgebieten im Südosten der Vereinigten Staaten. reek Indianer. reek, Indianer aus der Muskogee-Sprachfamilie, die zu den Indianervölkern des Südostens gehören. Sie selbst nannten sich Muskogee.  ein Angehöriger des gleichnamigen Indianervolks. Synonyme: [1, 2] Muskogee, Creek-Indianer. Beispiele:  „Er war aus England.
Creek Indianer American Indian Article Categories VideoThe Last of the Mohicans - Promontory (Main Theme)
Die Muskogee-Stämme hatten keine Geisterbeschwörer wie die meisten anderen indianischen Völker Nordamerikas, sondern verfügten über eine differenzierte Priesterschaft Alektca , deren rituelle und politische Macht vom Hiliswa-Besitz abhängig war.
Die Macht wurde vor allem in weiblicher Linie vererbt. Zudem absolvierten die Kandidaten eine längere Ausbildung, um den Ablauf der heiligen Zeremonien und ihre Leitung zu erlernen.
Das rituelle Jahr der Muskogee konzentrierte sich auf vier kalendarische Zeremonien , die den landwirtschaftlichen Zyklus kennzeichneten.
Jede Stadt hielt ihre eigenen Zeremonien ab. Letzteres war die wichtigste Zeremonie und markierte das neue Jahr mit der Wiederentzündung des heiligen Feuers und der allgemeinen Erneuerung der Welt.
Einige Muskogee-Siedlungen feiern diesen zeremoniellen Zyklus weiterhin. Während etwa 20 bis 25 Prozent der Creeks auch heute noch der traditionellen Religion folgen, sind die meisten Christen.
Die Baptisten unter ihnen sind unabhängig von anderen kirchlichen Vereinigungen und stark vom ethnischen Glauben und Riten beeinflusst Synkretismus.
Die Creek begruben ihre Toten zumindest der Elite mit reichen Grabbeigaben unter speziellen Häusern, die für diesen Zweck gebaut wurden. Der Zugang zu den Totenhäusern war nach Abschluss der Bestattungszeremonie verboten.
Manchmal entstand daraus ein ganzes Dorf Nekropole. It comprised not only the dominant Creeks but also speakers of other Muskogean languages Hitchiti, Alabama-Koasati and of non-Muskogean languages Yuchi, some Natchez and Shawnee.
The Seminole of Florida and Oklahoma are a branch of the Creek Confederacy of the 18th and early 19th centuries. Ultimately, the confederacy did not succeed, in part because the Creek towns about 50 with a total population of perhaps 20, were not able to coordinate the contribution of warriors to a common battle.
In —14, when the Creek War with the United States took place, some towns fought with the white colonizers and some the Red Sticks against them.
Upon defeat, the Creeks ceded 23,, acres of land half of Alabama and part of southern Georgia ; they were forcibly removed to Indian Territory now Oklahoma in the s.
For three-quarters of a century each tribe had a land allotment and a quasi-autonomous government modelled on that of the United States.
In preparation for Oklahoma statehood , some of this land was allotted to individual Indians; the rest was made available to white homesteaders, held in trust by the federal government, or allotted to freed slaves.
Tribal governments were effectively dissolved in but have continued to exist on a limited basis. Creek descendants numbered more than 76, in the early 21st century.
Census data from indicates that about two-thirds of the Creek Indians were living in urban settings at that time. At the time of Indian removal, a segment of the Creek people entered into an agreement with the government that enabled them to remain in the East.
They were business people who operated ferries, served as guides and interpreters, and raised cattle. Their descendants are the Poarch Creeks, whose tribal headquarters are located in Atmore, Alabama.
During the early s, some Poarch Creeks began to work in the timber and turpentine industries. Some also became tenant farmers or worked as hired farm laborers.
Beginning in the s, the pulpwood industry became an important element in the Poarch Creek economy. Since the s, Poarch Creeks have been working in other non-agricultural jobs.
According to statistics, 61 percent of Creeks over the age of 16 were in the labor force. Of those who were employed, 19 percent were in managerial or professional specialty occupations, and 26 percent were in technical, sales, and administrative support occupations.
Looking at major industry groups, approximately six percent worked in the agricultural, forestry, fisheries, and mining areas; nine percent worked in public administration; 12 percent worked in retail trade; 19 percent were involved in manufacturing; and 22 percent worked in professional and related services, including health and education.
Throughout their history, the Creeks governed themselves democratically. Each town elected a chief who served for life, though he could be recalled.
Members of each town were informed about issues and participated actively in decision making. Town leaders met in daily council sessions, and when broader councils were called, each town sent several representatives to speak and vote on its behalf.
Although there was no specific law fixing a penalty for misrepresenting constituents, leaders who did so faced severe consequences; for example, after signing a treaty that ceded good hunting grounds to Georgia, a chief returned home to find his house burned and his crops destroyed.
The society was matrilineal, but most positions of tribal leadership were filled by men. While women did not vote, they did enjoy full economic rights including property ownership, and they exerted significant influence on decisions by discussing their opinions with the men of the town.
Each town may also have appointed a Beloved Woman who communicated with her counterparts in other towns.
The roles of the Beloved Woman and perhaps other female leaders have been lost to history since European observers ignored them and omitted them from written accounts.
In , a delegation of Creek leaders traveled to New York to negotiate a treaty with President Washington.
It was the first in a long series of treaties that ceded tribal land to the United States; with each cession, the tribe was guaranteed unending ownership of their remaining land.
In some cases, treaties were obtained by such fraudulent means as purposely negotiating with a non-representative group of minor chiefs after being refused by the official delegation, or forging the names of chiefs who refused to cooperate.
In the Shawnee chief Tecumseh, whose mother was Creek, organized a rebellion against the United States. The Creek nation split over whether to join the uprising; most of the Lower Creeks supported Tecumseh while the Upper Creeks were rather evenly divided in their allegiance.
This division resulted in the Red Stick War, a devastating civil war within the tribe. Under terms of the peace treaty signed in , the tribe relinquished to the United States 22 million acres of land, including the townsites of some of the Upper Creeks who had fought alongside Andrew Jackson's forces against the rebels.
In addition to gradually obtaining ownership of tens of millions of acres of Creek land, federal and state governments placed a succession of restrictions on the Indians.
Alabama law, for example, prohibited an Indian from testifying against a white man. According to Grant Foreman in Indian Removal: The Emigration of the Five Civilized Tribes of Indians , a Creek delegation to the United States Secretary of War in complained, "We are made subject to laws we have no means of comprehending; we never know when we are doing right.
The Removal Treaty of guaranteed the Creeks political autonomy and perpetual ownership of new homelands in Indian Territory in return for their cession of remaining tribal lands in the East.
It specified that each Creek could freely choose whether to remain on his homeland or move to the West. Those who decided to stay in the East could select homesteads on former tribal land.
Land speculators eager to profit from the anticipated influx of white settlers devised a variety of ways to cheat the Indians out of their land, either by paying far less than its true value or by forging deeds.
After an Indian attack on a mail stage—for which a white man was later convicted—a brief civil war pitted Creeks who wanted to remain in the East against those who accepted the concept of relocation.
Finally the federal government ordered forcible removal of all remaining Creeks in Emigrants were subjected to horrible conditions during the government-subsidized trips to Indian Territory.
One group began their journey in December , barefoot and scantily clothed; 26 percent of them died during the four-month journey.
Leaders pushed onward as quickly as they could, not allowing the Indians to conduct funeral services to ensure the dead an afterlife, and sometimes not even allowing the survivors to bury the dead.
In July , a party of 1, Creeks departed for the West with the warriors handcuffed and chained together for the entire journey. Upon arrival in Indian Territory, the Five Civilized Tribes faced opposition from plains Indians who would have to share diminished hunting grounds with 60, new residents.
Although the Creeks were capable of defending themselves against attack, they took the lead in conducting negotiations between the immigrant tribes and the indigenous people to establish peaceful coexistence.
As they settled into their new homeland, the Creeks discovered that the United States' promises of assistance went largely unfulfilled.
Tools and farm implements did not come in time to build homes and plant crops. Weapons and ammunition did not arrive, so the men had to relearn bow and arrow hunting techniques.
In order to maximize profits from their government contracts, food suppliers delivered partial shipments and rancid provisions.
Especially during the first few years after relocation, annuity payments guaranteed by the treaty were made primarily in goods rather than in cash, and most of the items to be delivered were either useless to the Indians or were lost in shipment.
By the s the Creek people had begun to achieve a relatively prosperous life in their new territory. The Creeks tried to remain neutral in the conflict but were drawn into hostilities by attacks on their people.
Loyalties were once again divided. The Lower Towns generally favored retention of slavery and sided with the South, while the Upper Towns chose to abide by their treaties with the North.
What ensued was another civil war within the Creek nation. In retribution for the failure of the entire tribe to support the Union, the post-war treaty required the cession of 3.
The Creeks attempted to formalize their government after arriving in the West. A written constitution providing for elected tribal officers was adopted about ; after the Civil War, it was replaced with a new one modeled closely after the U.
As a result, tribal lands were removed from common ownership and distributed among individual Indians for private ownership. In , the U. These federal policies were reversed by the Wheeler-Howard Act, which encouraged tribal cultural and economic development.
Two years later, Congress passed the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act, providing Indian tribes with a mechanism for incorporating.
It also provided benefits such as a student loan program and a revolving fund to be used for extending credit to Indians.
The 37, members of the Muscogee Nation are governed by an elected principal chief, a bicameral legislature, and a judicial branch.
The 2, Poarch Creeks in Alabama are governed by an elected tribal council that selects a tribal chairman from among its nine members.
Listed below are some of the Creek people who have made notable contributions to American society as a whole. It is difficult to arrange their names by area of contribution, since some individuals attained prominence in several fields.
Gary Fife is the producer and host of "National Native News," which airs on over public radio stations around the country. Enoch Kelly Haney is an Oklahoma state senator who is nationally recognized for his political involvement and proactive stance for Native American rights; he is also an accomplished artist on canvas and in bronze.
Gale Thrower — received the Alabama Folk Life Heritage Award for her contributions toward preserving her tribe's traditions and culture.
Alexander Alex Lawrence Posey was a poet and a writer of prose; he was elected to the House of Warriors, the lower chamber of the Creek National Council; at various times he served as superintendent of two boarding schools and the Creek Orphan Asylum, and as superintendent of public instruction for the Creek Nation of Oklahoma; he helped draft the constitution for the proposed State of Sequoia, a document on which the constitution for the state of Oklahoma was later based.
Ernest Childers — was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for "exceptional leadership, initiative, calmness under fire, and conspicuous gallantry" on September 22, , at Oliveto, Italy.
John N. Reese was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for "his gallant determination in the face of tremendous odds, aggressive fighting spirit, and extreme heroism at the cost of his life" on February 9, , at Manila in the Philippine Islands.
Allie P. Reynolds was a baseball pitcher with the Cleveland Indians from to and the New York Yankees from to ; he had the best earned run average ERA in the American League in and , and he led the league in strikeouts and shutouts for two seasons; he was named America's Professional Athlete of the Year in Jack Jacobs played football for the University of Oklahoma from to ; he also played professional football for 14 years with several teams including the Cleveland Rams, the Washington Redskins, and the Green Bay Packers.
Acee Blue Eagle was an acclaimed Creek painter. Department of State as goodwill ambassadors, using their art as a means of bridging the communications gap around the world.
Jerome Tiger , a painter and sculptor, was also a Golden Gloves boxer. His brother Johnny Tiger, Jr. She has done a series of paintings depicting the various treaties of the Five Civilized Tribes, and another portraying the women of the tribes.
The official publication of the Muscogee Nation. Distributed 12 times annually in English. Circulation is 8, Address: Department of Communications, P.
Box , Okmulgee, Oklahoma Operated by the Poarch Creek Tribe. Programming is in English and features country music, local news, and community events.
Address: Tribal Offices, P. Displays Indian artifacts and art work, with separate sections devoted to each of the Five Civilized Tribes.
Braund, Kathryn E. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, Great Depression. County Unit System. Battle of Kettle Creek. NGE Topics.
From Our Home Page. Georgia General Assembly. Jefferson Franklin Long Lee County. Erskine Caldwell Trending Articles. John Abbot ca. Civil War on the Chattahoochee River.
Three Governors Controversy. Daniel Shouse. Huddle House. Naval Stores Industry. Camp-Meeting Grounds.
Elbert County. Patrick McCay b. Reconstruction Conventions. Mike Egan Laurens County. Guide to Creek Indians ancestry, family history and genealogy: birth records, marriage records, death records, census records, and other agency records.
Creek Indians trace their ancestry through the female line. The children belong to the same clan as their mother.
Clan members were closely related so they had to marry someone from a different clan than his or her own. The Creek Nation is comprised of six political districts : 1.
Coweta, 2. Deep Fork, 3. Eufaula, 4. Muscogee, 5. Okmulgee, 6. Wewoka; these districts function like counties. Muscogee Nation of Oklahoma P.
Box Okmulgee, Oklahoma Phone: Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico , gave a more complete history of the Creek tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods.
Book Notes on the Creek Indians , by J.Die Muskogee, auch Creek genannt, sind ein Indianervolk Nordamerikas, das ursprünglich aus dem Südosten der USA stammt. In ihrer eigenen Sprache. für „Indianerumsiedlungsgesetz“) gedeckten Vertreibung der Muskogee (Creek) aus ihren angestammten Siedlungsgebieten im Südosten der Vereinigten Staaten. Mai im Jahre als Verräter von anderen Creek-Indianern erschossen. Mit dem Indianervertreibungsgesetz des Präsidenten Andrew Jackson im Jahr . reek Indianer. reek, Indianer aus der Muskogee-Sprachfamilie, die zu den Indianervölkern des Südostens gehören. Sie selbst nannten sich Muskogee. Sie errichteten Kirchen und Schulen, schufen Gesetze, setzten Gerichtshöfe ein, Ravensburger Г¤pfelchen eine Miliz auf und erreichten den gleichen Bildungsstand wie Cherokee. Während des Winters hingegen gehen sie in die Kirche. Im Jahre sprachen nur noch etwa 1. Es gab komplexe Gesellschaften mit Hauptstätten, denen wiederum kleinere Städte unterstellt waren. State Indian Pages. Creek descendants numbered more than 76, in the early 21st century. Before the removal of many of those tribes to reservations in Oklahoma, they acquired a few dances outside their own traditions. Gary Fife is the producer and host of "National Native News," which airs on over public Emiliano Insua stations around the country. The Creek Nation is a relatively young political entity. Hide Caption. Removal was supervised by the United States Army, the Creeks were divided into groups to be removed. Mirabeau B. Each family compound contained a large wooden mortar and pestle used Silver Oak Casino Sign In process corn into meal or grits after it had been hulled by cooking with Slots Casino Games Free Download or mixing with ashes. Creek Markus Beyer Boxer also bought the scrap threads of scarlet cloth that traders cleaned out of the bottoms of their packs; they boiled them to remove the dye, which they then added to berry juice and used to color other cloth. Erskine Caldwell Crow Creek. It is difficult to arrange Colemans Senfpulver names by area of contribution, since some individuals attained prominence in several fields. Weapons and ammunition did not arrive, so the men had to relearn bow and arrow hunting techniques.